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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 1  
    Online since October 10, 2012

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Diaphragmatic eventration mimicking congenital diaphragmatic hernia: The value of chest radiograph and barium meal in diagnosis
Mohammed Kabir Saleh, Mohammad Abba Suwaid, Sule Kazaure Idris, Abdulkadir Musa Tabari, Kabiru Isyaku
January-June 2012, 9(1):36-39
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102114  
A 6-month-old boy was referred to the radiology department of the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital for chest X-ray, from the Emergency Pediatric unit of the Hospital, on account of severe bronchopneumonia in association with diaphragmatic hernia to rule out pulmonary tuberculosis, but for which, chest X-ray and a complimentary urgent Barium meal studies showed a complete left-sided eventration of the hemidiaphragm. He had successful plication of the left hemidiaphragm and the bowel loops, and spleen were carefully freed and fixed back into the abdomen. The paper highlighted on the key role played by the chest X-ray and an immediate complimentary upper gastrointestinal barium studies in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition in a resource-poor environment. The relevant literature was also reviewed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
ABO and rhesus blood groups among blood donors in Kano, North-Western Nigeria
Onwuka Kalu Chima, Tijjani Bashir Mohammed, Kuliya-Gwarzo Aisha, Samaila Adamu Alhaji, Borodo Musa Muhammad, Aminu Haruna Kwaru
January-June 2012, 9(1):11-13
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102105  
Background: The need for blood and blood products requires an efficient blood transfusion service. This study was undertaken to provide pro data on the distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups that would assist in planning and coordinating blood transfusion services for the cosmopolitan city of Kano. Materials and Methods: A total of 5000 consecutive blood donor samples were grouped for ABO and Rhesus 'D' antigen by tile and tube methods at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) over a one-year period. Results: Blood group O had the highest prevalence of 2860 (57.2%) followed by blood group B of 1035 (20.7%), then A of 1025 (20.5%) and the lowest being AB of 80 (1.6%). A total of 4741 (94.8%) of the study group were Rhesus 'D' positive while 259 (5.2%) were Rhesus 'D' negative. Conclusion: The ABO blood group had blood group O as the most prevalent blood group in the study population while the lowest was AB. The Rhesus blood group positive was 94.8% while Rhesus negative blood group was 5.2%.
  13,608 870 5
HIV counseling and testing in a tertiary health facility in Lafia, Nigeria
Audu Esther Solomon, Madawa Absalom Amos, Mohaammed Hajara Laraba, Iyigulu Alice Alaska, Yakubu Ahmed Ashuku, Olaiya Olanrewaju Oluwadare, Bako Ishaku Ara
January-June 2012, 9(1):6-10
Objectives : This study was carried out with the aim of determining the seroprevalence of HIV among clients accessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing (HCT) services in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, North Central Nigeria. The study also determined the personal profile of these clients and their reasons for accessing the HCT services. The findings of the research would be useful in assisting the state government and policy makers to plan for treatment, care, and prevention for those at risk. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of records of clients who accessed services at the HCT unit of the Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia over a 2-year period was carried out. Results : A total of 4,292 (50.1%) out of the 8,554 who were tested for HIV were seropositive. 65.7% (2,818) of those who were HIV-seropositive were females while 44% (1,474) were males. Majority (84.7%) of those who were HIV-seropositive were between the ages of 16 to 35 years, and 64.9% of those who were positive were married. Those who came for HCT because of medical reasons had higher seroprevalence than those who came on their own to know their HIV status Conclusion: There is need to encourage activities that promote HCT and especially health provider initiated HCT in all health facilities. This will increase the diagnosis of new HIV cases, thus leading to an early commencement of treatment and initiation of strategies for prevention of transmission from the HIV-infected persons to their partners. Preventive strategies should be tailored towards high-risk groups including those who are married and the young adults to reduce new infections through heterosexual transmission.
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Pattern of acute blood transfusion reactions in Kano, North-Western Nigeria
Baffa A Gwaram, Musa M Borodo, Abdulhamid I Dutse, Aisha Kuliya-Gwarzo
January-June 2012, 9(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102110  
Background : Advancement in transfusion medicine has led to the use of large quantities of blood and blood components in modern clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the pattern of acute blood transfusion reactions among adults in North-Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive observational study over a 3-month period that evaluated 302 blood transfusions in 180 consenting recipients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and P-values of ≤ 0.05 were regarded as significant. Results: The mean age of the recipients was 37.2 ± 13.7 (95% CI: 35.2 - 39.2) years. The incidence of acute transfusion reaction (ATRs) was 3.6%, out of which 3.3% were febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) and 0.3% were acute allergic reaction (AAR). All the recipients that reacted presented clinically with fever and more than 90% of them had associated chills and/or rigors. There was a significant relationship between ATRs and history of previous transfusion (χ2 = 4.12; P = 0.04) and stored blood of more than 3 days (χ2 = 5.20; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Patients with previous history of transfusion should be monitored closely as they have a higher risk of developing transfusion reaction, and transfusion of blood stored for more than 3 days should as much as possible be avoided, especially in patients that have a potential risk of transfusion reaction.
  7,982 514 3
Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in children with sickle cell anemia in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
Sadisu M Ma'aji, NMA Muhammed Jiya, Sule A Saidu, Muhammad Danfulani, Garba H Yunusa, Usman M Sani, Baba Jibril, Abubakar Musa, Haruna I Gele, Mohammed S Baba, Samaila Bello
January-June 2012, 9(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102106  
Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited disease caused by production of abnormal hemoglobin chains within the red blood cell. In Nigeria, West Africa, the incidence of SCA is 3%. The most common abdominal manifestations include abdominal pain (mesenteric crisis), hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, autosplenomegaly, and cholelithiasis. Objective: To evaluate the abnormal transabdominal ultrasonographic (TAUS) findings in children with sickle cell anemia in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Pediatric patients with SCA attending the sickle cell clinic at the Department of Pediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto were scanned at the Radiology Department of the Hospital by transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) using Apogee 800 plus Ultrasound scanner with a variable frequency probes at 5-12 MHz. The patients were in their steady states. They were also screened for viral hepatitis B and C. Results: The commonest TAUS findings in this study was hepatomegaly in 70 (98.6%) patients followed by splenomegaly in 15 (21.1%), autosplenomegaly in 3 (4.2%), and gallbladder sludge in 2 (2.8%) patients. Conclusion: Transabdominal ultrasonographic imaging of patients with sickle cell anemia revealed a high prevalence of abdominal abnormalities, especially of the liver, spleen, and gallbladder.
  7,863 390 6
CASE REPORTS
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: A case report and review of the literature
Mairo Adamu Bugaje, Solomon Sulei Danbauchi
January-June 2012, 9(1):33-35
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102113  
This is a case report of a 7-week old boy who presented with clinical features suggestive of transposition of the great arteries with a shunt, but later confirmed to have hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) on echocardiography. The use of echocardiogram in making an accurate diagnosis of congenital heart defects is discussed. Some important aspects of presentation, management strategies, and current literature on hypoplastic left heart syndrome are highlighted.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inflammatory cervical smears and infection in Kano, Northern Nigeria
Ochicha Ochicha, Aminu Z Mohammed, Zakari Mohammed, Sani A Malami, Hamisu Takalmawa
January-June 2012, 9(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102100  
Background : Inflammation is commonly present in cervical smears for screening of pre-malignant lesions. This study was done to identify microbial pathogens responsible for the inflammation. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study of cervical smears and endocervical swabs from patients at the gynecology, postnatal, and general outpatient clinics of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital over a 4-month period. Results : A total of 421 women between the ages of 17 and 80 years were recruited for the study, but most (95%) were premenopausal (< 50 years). Two hundred and thirteen (50.6%) of the smears were inflammatory as evidenced by prominent neutrophilic infiltrate, but only 127 (30%) of the study patients had infection as demonstrated by microbial growth on culture and positive Chlamydia antigen test. Seventy-eight (61%) of the 127 cervical infections occurred among the 213 patients with inflamed smears. The remaining 39% (49 cases) of cervical infections occurred in patients with non-inflammatory smears. Chlamydia and candida were the most frequent microbes accounting for 68.5% of all cervical infections. Thirty-nine (8.7%) of all smears were dysplastic with low grade dysplasia comprising the overwhelming majority - 35 cases. Conclusion : As in most published studies, cervical inflammation did not correlate with infection as infection also commonly occurs in patients without inflammatory smears. This renders patient management problematic for gynecologists. Further research is, therefore, required to clarify the microbial and non-microbial causes of cervico-vaginal inflammation.
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Pattern of obesity among chief executives of public and private organizations in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria
Mathilda Edmund Banwat, Moses Peter Chingle, Luret Albert Lar, Nantok Dami, Ayuba Ibrahim Zoakah
January-June 2012, 9(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102108  
Background: Obesity and overweight are known to be associated with other non-communicable diseases (NCD). In recent times, there has been an increase in the prevalence of this health-related condition, not only in the developed but also in developing countries. This study set out to assess the prevalence and factors associated with this health condition among chief executives of private and public organizations in Jos metropolis. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 chief executives of public and private institutions in Jos north local government area (LGA) of Plateau State were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique and data was collected from them using interviewer-administered, structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using Epi Info statistical software (version 3.5.3). Results: The ages of the respondents ranged between 27 and 68 years with a mean of 44 + 2 years. Majority of the respondents (68%) were males. The prevalence of obesity was found to be 38% while 48.8% of subjects were overweight. BMI of subjects had a statistically significant relationship with sex and income of respondents but not with exercise. There was a fair knowledge of obesity, its contributory factors, and complications among the respondents (63.6%). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight were found to be high among the studied executives, despite their fair knowledge of the disease and its complications. The increasing prevalence of obesity among chief executives of organizations needs to be addressed by increased health education. Managements of organizations should insist on periodic medical check-ups for their executives.
  5,338 468 3
A pathologic review of ophthalmic tumors in Kano, Northern Nigeria
Ali Bala Umar, Ochicha Ochicha, Yawale Iliyasu
January-June 2012, 9(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102109  
Background and Objective: Tumors of eye and ocular adnexa are reported to be common in Africa, but no formal study has been conducted here in Kano, the largest Northern Nigerian city. This study is a documentation of the pattern of ophthalmic tumors in our locality. Materials and Methods: This was a 12-year (1999-2010 inclusive) retrospective study of all orbito-ocular neoplasms diagnosed at the pathology department of a teaching hospital. Results : 438 ophthalmic tumors were diagnosed during the study period, of which 79.7% were malignant and 20.3% benign. Males were slightly more preponderant with M/F ratio of 1.3:1. Retinoblastoma and conjunctival squamous carcinoma were the commonest tumors respectively comprising 44.5% and 18.9%. These two ocular malignancies also largely accounted for the bimodal age distribution peaks of ophthalmic cancer in the 1 st and 4 th decades. Conjunctival squamous papilloma and hemangioma were the most prevalent benign ophthalmic tumors. Conclusion : Our findings were broadly similar to most other Nigerian and African studies but significantly at variance with those of the western world.
  5,172 436 3
CASE REPORTS
The dilemma of managing childhood poisoning without adequate history in a resource-poor environment: Report of 4 cases
Helen Oluwadamilola Akhiwu, Jamila Sani Ibrahim, Shehu Umar Abdullahi, Oyelami Oyeku Akibu
January-June 2012, 9(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102116  
The dilemma of managing childhood poisoning without adequate history poses a serious challenge, especially in resource-limited settings where facilities for toxicology studies are not readily available. We reported 4 cases of childhood accidental poisoning who were admitted to our center with inadequate history. Two were cases of haloperidol poisoning, another was that of potassium bromate poisoning and the fourth was that of organophosphate poisoning. While meticulous history was helpful in the making of the diagnosis of the first 3 cases, the use of electronic literature solved the riddle in the fourth.
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EDITORIAL
Of online edition and the mixed facets of diseases in the developing world
MM Borodo
January-June 2012, 9(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0331-8540.102099  
  3,357 389 -
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